Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Distribution of spa Types, Integrons and Associated Gene Cassettes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Intensive Care Units of Hospitals in Tehran, Iran

Mehdi Goudarzi 1 , 2 , Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi 3 , Mehdi Azad 4 , Hossein Goudarzi 1 , 2 , * and Hadi Azimi 5
Authors Information
1 Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Department of Medical Mycology, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, IR Iran
5 English Language Teaching Department, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases: October 01, 2016, 11 (4); e38813
  • Published Online: August 7, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: April 28, 2016
  • Revised: July 8, 2016
  • Accepted: July 17, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/archcid.38813

To Cite: Goudarzi M, Seyedjavadi S S, Azad M, Goudarzi H, Azimi H. Distribution of spa Types, Integrons and Associated Gene Cassettes in Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Intensive Care Units of Hospitals in Tehran, Iran, Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2016 ; 11(4):e38813. doi: 10.5812/archcid.38813.

Copyright © 2016, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Wang WY, Chiueh TS, Sun JR, Tsao SM, Lu JJ. Molecular typing and phenotype characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from blood in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2012; 7(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Fenner L, Widmer AF, Frei R. Molecular epidemiology of invasive methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains circulating at a Swiss University Hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008; 27(7): 623-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Chambers HF, Deleo FR. Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009; 7(9): 629-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Garcia-Garrote F, Cercenado E, Marin M, Bal M, Trincado P, Corredoira J, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carrying the mecC gene: emergence in Spain and report of a fatal case of bacteraemia. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014; 69(1): 45-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Ito T, Katayama Y, Asada K, Mori N, Tsutsumimoto K, Tiensasitorn C, et al. Structural comparison of three types of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec integrated in the chromosome in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001; 45(5): 1323-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Xu Z, Shi L, Zhang C, Zhang L, Li X, Cao Y, et al. Nosocomial infection caused by class 1 integron-carrying Staphylococcus aureus in a hospital in South China. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007; 13(10): 980-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Gillings MR. Integrons: past, present, and future. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2014; 78(2): 257-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Xu Z, Li L, Shi L, Shirtliff ME. Class 1 integron in staphylococci. Mol Biol Rep. 2011; 38(8): 5261-79[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Ardic N, Sareyyupoglu B, Ozyurt M, Haznedaroglu T, Ilga U. Investigation of aminoglycoside modifying enzyme genes in methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Microbiol Res. 2006; 161(1): 49-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Performancestandards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; Twenty-Second Informational Supplement. 2012;
  • 11. Goudarzi M, Goudarzi H, Sa Figueiredo AM, Udo EE, Fazeli M, Asadzadeh M, et al. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Iran: ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 Emerges as the Major Clone. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Harmsen D, Claus H, Witte W, Rothganger J, Claus H, Turnwald D, et al. Typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a university hospital setting by using novel software for spa repeat determination and database management. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41(12): 5442-8[PubMed]
  • 13. Moura A, Henriques I, Ribeiro R, Correia A. Prevalence and characterization of integrons from bacteria isolated from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007; 60(6): 1243-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Yang H, Chen S, White DG, Zhao S, McDermott P, Walker R, et al. Characterization of multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from diseased chickens and swine in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(8): 3483-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Budimir A, Deurenberg RH, Bosnjak Z, Stobberingh EE, Cetkovic H, Kalenic S. A variant of the Southern German clone of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is predominant in Croatia. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010; 16(8): 1077-83[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Awadalla HI, Khalil IA, Bassim HH, Ahmed MN, Wahba LM. Molecular typing of methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates at Ain Shams University Hospital, Egypt. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2010; 4(15): 1639-46
  • 17. Conceicao T, Aires-de-Sousa M, Fuzi M, Toth A, Paszti J, Ungvari E, et al. Replacement of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in Hungary over time: a 10-year surveillance study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007; 13(10): 971-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. O'Malley SM, Emele FE, Nwaokorie FO, Idika N, Umeizudike AK, Emeka-Nwabunnia I, et al. Molecular typing of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Nigeria. J Infect Public Health. 2015; 8(2): 187-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Bartoloni A, Riccobono E, Magnelli D, Villagran AL, Di Maggio T, Mantella A, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients from the Bolivian Chaco. Int J Infect Dis. 2015; 30: 156-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Cirkovic I, Stepanovic S, Skov R, Trajkovic J, Grgurevic A, Larsen AR. Carriage and Genetic Diversity of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Patients and Healthcare Workers in a Serbian University Hospital. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Japoni-Nejad A, Rezazadeh M, Kazemian H, Fardmousavi N, van Belkum A, Ghaznavi-Rad E. Molecular characterization of the first community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Central Iran. Int J Infect Dis. 2013; 17(11)-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Westh H, Zinn CS, Rosdahl VT. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial consumption and resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 15 hospitals in 14 countries. Microb Drug Resist. 2004; 10(2): 169-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Zinn CS, Westh H, Rosdahl VT, Sarisa Study G. An international multicenter study of antimicrobial resistance and typing of hospital Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 21 laboratories in 19 countries or states. Microb Drug Resist. 2004; 10(2): 160-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Campanile F, Bongiorno D, Borbone S, Stefani S. Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) in Italy. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2009; 8: 22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Tekerekoglu MS, Ay S, Otlu B, Cicek A, Kayabas U, Durmaz R. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens of patients with nosocomial infection: are there unnoticed silent outbreaks? New Microbiol. 2007; 30(2): 131-7[PubMed]
  • 26. Azimian A, Havaei SA, Fazeli H, Naderi M, Ghazvini K, Samiee SM, et al. Genetic characterization of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate from the respiratory tract of a patient in a university hospital in northeastern Iran. J Clin Microbiol. 2012; 50(11): 3581-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Ko KS, Lee JY, Suh JY, Oh WS, Peck KR, Lee NY, et al. Distribution of major genotypes among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in Asian countries. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43(1): 421-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Mostafa M, Siadat SD, Shahcheraghi F, Vaziri F, Japoni-Nejad A, Vand Yousefi J, et al. Variability in gene cassette patterns of class 1 and 2 integrons associated with multi drug resistance patterns in Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates in Tehran-Iran. BMC Microbiol. 2015; 15: 152[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Guney AK. A Study on Class I Integrons and Antimicrobial Resistance among Clinical Staphylococci Isolates from a Turkish Hospital. Clin Microbiol. 2015; 3: 173
  • 30. Xu Z, Li L, Shirtliff ME, Peters BM, Li B, Peng Y, et al. Resistance class 1 integron in clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in southern China, 2001-2006. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011; 17(5): 714-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Ren C, Zhao Y, Shen Y. Analysis of the effect of integrons on drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by multiplex PCR detection. Mol Med Rep. 2013; 7(3): 719-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Linde H, Wagenlehner F, Strommenger B, Drubel I, Tanzer J, Reischl U, et al. Healthcare-associated outbreaks and community-acquired infections due to MRSA carrying the Panton-Valentine leucocidin gene in southeastern Germany. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005; 24(6): 419-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Shore AC, Rossney AS, Brennan OM, Kinnevey PM, Humphreys H, Sullivan DJ, et al. Characterization of a novel arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec composite island with significant homology to Staphylococcus epidermidis ACME type II in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus genotype ST22-MRSA-IV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011; 55(5): 1896-905[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Chen H, Liu Y, Jiang X, Chen M, Wang H. Rapid change of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in a Chinese tertiary care hospital over a 15-year period. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010; 54(5): 1842-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Seidl K, Leimer N, Palheiros Marques M, Furrer A, Holzmann-Burgel A, Senn G, et al. Clonality and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland between 2012 and 2014. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2015; 14: 14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Goudarzi M, Fazeli M, Goudarzi H, Azad M, Seyedjavadi SS. Spa Typing of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated From Clinical Specimens of Patients With Nosocomial Infections in TEHRAN, Iran. Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2016;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments