Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. Isolated From Clinical Samples of Milad Hospital of Tehran, Iran

Leila Arbabi 1 , Mina Boustanshenas 1 , Mohammad Rahbar 1 , 2 , Parviz Owlia 3 , Maryam Adabi 1 , Samira Rasouli Koohi 1 , Mastaneh Afshar 1 , Sara Fathizadeh 1 , Ali Majidpour 1 , 4 and Mahshid Talebi-Taher 1 , 4 , *
Authors Information
1 Antimicrobial Resistance Research Center, Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Department of Microbiology, Reference Health Laboratories Research Center, Deputy of Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Molecular Microbiology Research Center, Shahed University, Tehran, IR Iran
4 Department of Infectious Diseases, Rasoul-e-Akram General Teaching Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases: July 2016, 11 (3); e60130
  • Published Online: June 13, 2016
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: January 18, 2016
  • Revised: April 30, 2016
  • Accepted: May 2, 2016
  • DOI: 10.5812/archcid.36260

To Cite: Arbabi L, Boustanshenas M, Rahbar M, Owlia P, Adabi M, et al. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus spp. Isolated From Clinical Samples of Milad Hospital of Tehran, Iran, Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2016 ; 11(3):e60130. doi: 10.5812/archcid.36260.

Copyright © 2016, Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Magi G, Capretti R, Paoletti C, Pietrella M, Ferrante L, Biavasco F, et al. Presence of a vanA-carrying pheromone response plasmid (pBRG1) in a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003; 47(5): 1571-6[PubMed]
  • 2. Heidari H, Emaneini M, Dabiri H, Jabalameli F. Virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance pattern and molecular analysis of Enterococcal strains isolated from burn patients. Microb Pathog. 2016; 90: 93-7[PubMed]
  • 3. Talebi M, Rahimi F, Katouli M, Kühn I, Möllby R, Eshraghi S, et al. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococcal species in sewage treatment plants in Iran. Water Air Soil Pollut . 2007; 185(1-4): 111-9
  • 4. Laukova A, Kandricakova A, Scerbova J. , Strompfova V. Enterococci isolated from farm ostriches and their relation to enterocins. Folia microbiol. 2015; : 1-7
  • 5. Marshall CG, Lessard IA, Park I, Wright GD. Glycopeptide antibiotic resistance genes in glycopeptide-producing organisms. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998; 42(9): 2215-20[PubMed]
  • 6. Morrison AJ, Wenzel RP. Nosocomial urinary tract infections due to enterococcus. Ten years' experience at a university hospital. Arch Intern Med. 1986; 146(8): 1549-51[PubMed]
  • 7. Fisher K, Phillips C. The ecology, epidemiology and virulence of Enterococcus. Microbiology. 2009; 155: 1749-57[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Flores RM, Ross TW. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci: Approach to Treatment and Control. Cancer Control. 1996; 3(1): 66-72[PubMed]
  • 9. Kandricakova A, Laukova A, Strompfova V. Characteristic and susceptibility to enterocins of enterococci in pheasants possessing virulence factor genes. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015; 18(3): 507-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Eisner A, Feierl G, Gorkiewicz G, Dieber F, Kessler HH, Marth E, et al. High prevalence of VanA-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococci in Austrian poultry. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71(10): 6407-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Macovei L, Zurek L. Ecology of antibiotic resistance genes: characterization of enterococci from houseflies collected in food settings. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006; 72(6): 4028-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Arias CA, Contreras GA, Murray BE. Management of multidrug-resistant enterococcal infections. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010; 16(6): 555-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Sharifi Y, Hasani A, Ghotaslou R, Naghili B, Aghazadeh M, Milani M, et al. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance in enterococci isolated from urinary tract infections. Adv Pharm Bull. 2013; 3(1): 197-201[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Talebi M, Rahimi F, Katouli M, Mollby R, Pourshafie MR. Epidemiological link between wastewater and human vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates. Curr Microbiol. 2008; 56(5): 468-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Tendolkar PM, Baghdayan AS, Shankar N. Pathogenic enterococci: new developments in the 21st century. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003; 60(12): 2622-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Kuhn I, Iversen A, Finn M, Greko C, Burman LG, Blanch AR, et al. Occurrence and relatedness of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in animals, humans, and the environment in different European regions. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71(9): 5383-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Kayaoglu G, Orstavik D. Virulence factors of Enterococcus faecalis: relationship to endodontic disease. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2004; 15(5): 308-20[PubMed]
  • 18. Cetinkaya Y, Falk P, Mayhall CG. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000; 13(4): 686-707[PubMed]
  • 19. Dupre I, Zanetti S, Schito AM, Fadda G, Sechi LA. Incidence of virulence determinants in clinical Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis isolates collected in Sardinia (Italy). J Med Microbiol. 2003; 52: 491-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Novais C, Coque TM, Ferreira H, Sousa JC, Peixe L. Environmental contamination with vancomycin-resistant enterococci from hospital sewage in Portugal. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005; 71(6): 3364-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Platsouka ED, Dimopoulou H, Miriagou V, Paniara O. The first clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecium with the VanA phenotype in a tertiary Greek hospital. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2000; 46(6): 1039-40[PubMed]
  • 22. Vankerckhoven V, Van Autgaerden T, Vael C, Lammens C, Chapelle S, Rossi R, et al. Development of a multiplex PCR for the detection of asa1, gelE, cylA, esp, and hyl genes in enterococci and survey for virulence determinants among European hospital isolates of Enterococcus faecium. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(10): 4473-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Khan SA, Nawaz MS, Khan AA, Hopper SL, Jones RA, Cerniglia CE. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus spp. from poultry and dairy farms: detection of virulence and vancomycin resistance gene markers by PCR. Mol Cell Probes. 2005; 19(1): 27-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Rahimi F, Talebi M, Saifi M, Pourshafie MR. Distribution of enterococcal species and detection of vancomycin resistance genes by multiplex PCR in Tehran sewage. Iran Biomed J. 2007; 11(3): 161-7[PubMed]
  • 25. Gambarotto K, Ploy MC, Turlure P, Grelaud C, Martin C, Bordessoule D, et al. Prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in fecal samples from hospitalized patients and nonhospitalized controls in a cattle-rearing area of France. J Clin Microbiol. 2000; 38(2): 620-4[PubMed]
  • 26. Arbabi L, Vandyoudefi J, Bouzari M, Rahimi F, Rahimi F. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern among vancomycin resistant enterococci isolated from meat and fecal samples in tehran livestock husbandries. 2010;
  • 27. Maschieto A, Martinez R, Palazzo IC, Darini AL. Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus sp. isolated from the intestinal tract of patients from a university hospital in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004; 99(7): 763-7[PubMed]
  • 28. Martinez JA, Ruthazer R, Hansjosten K, Barefoot L, Snydman DR. Role of environmental contamination as a risk factor for acquisition of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients treated in a medical intensive care unit. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163(16): 1905-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Goossens H. The epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 1999; 12(6): 537-41[PubMed]
  • 30. Gikas A, Christidou A, Scoulica E, Nikolaidis P, Skoutelis A, Levidiotou S, et al. Epidemiology and molecular analysis of intestinal colonization by vancomycin-resistant enterococci in greek hospitals. J Clin Microbiol. 2005; 43(11): 5796-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Stobberingh E, van den Bogaard A, London N, Driessen C, Top J, Willems R. Enterococci with glycopeptide resistance in turkeys, turkey farmers, turkey slaughterers, and (sub)urban residents in the south of The Netherlands: evidence for transmission of vancomycin resistance from animals to humans? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1999; 43(9): 2215-21[PubMed]
  • 32. Eaton TJ, Gasson MJ. Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001; 67(4): 1628-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Shankar V, Baghdayan AS, Huycke MM, Lindahl G, Gilmore MS. Infection-derived Enterococcus faecalis strains are enriched in esp, a gene encoding a novel surface protein. Infect Immun. 1999; 67(1): 193-200[PubMed]
  • 34. Sharifi Y, Hasani A, Ghotaslou R, Varshochi M, Hasani A, Aghazadeh M, et al. Survey of Virulence Determinants among Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Clinical Specimens of Hospitalized Patients of North west of Iran. Open Microbiol J. 2012; 6: 34-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Franz CM, Muscholl-Silberhorn AB, Yousif NM, Vancanneyt M, Swings J, Holzapfel WH. Incidence of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance among Enterococci isolated from food. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2001; 67(9): 4385-9[PubMed]
  • 36. Mannu L, Paba A, Daga E, Comunian R, Zanetti S, Dupre I, et al. Comparison of the incidence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance between Enterococcus faecium strains of dairy, animal and clinical origin. Int J f food microbiol. 2003; 88(2): 291-304
  • 37. Giridhara Upadhyaya PM, Ravikumar KL, Umapathy BL. Review of virulence factors of enterococcus: an emerging nosocomial pathogen. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2009; 27(4): 301-5[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments