Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases

Published by: Kowsar

Nosocomial Pneumonia in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran; an Etiologic Survey

Golnar Abbasi Farid 1 , Ahmad Bagheri Moghaddam 2 and Amin Bojdy 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Internal Medicine and Critical Care, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Article information
  • Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases: August 2018, 13 (4); e64239
  • Published Online: August 5, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: February 27, 2017
  • Revised: November 20, 2017
  • Accepted: December 10, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/archcid.64239

To Cite: Abbasi Farid G , Bagheri Moghaddam A , Bojdy A. Nosocomial Pneumonia in Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of a Tertiary Care Center in Mashhad, Northeast of Iran; an Etiologic Survey, Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2018 ; 13(4):e64239. doi: 10.5812/archcid.64239.

Copyright © 2018, Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. American Thoracic Society , Infectious Diseases Society of America . Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;171(4):388-416. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200405-644ST. [PubMed: 15699079].
  • 2. Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, Bridges C, Hajjeh R; Cdc, et al. Guidelines for preventing health-care--associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2004;53(RR-3):1-36. [PubMed: 15048056].
  • 3. Chastre J, Fagon JY. Ventilator-associated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165(7):867-903. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.165.7.2105078. [PubMed: 11934711].
  • 4. Shajari GR, Khorshidi A, Moosavi GA. [Bacterial isolation and antibiotic resistance of nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalaized patients - Kashan, Iran]. Med J Hormozgan Univ. 2009;13(3):197-205. Persian.
  • 5. Celis R, Torres A, Gatell JM, Almela M, Rodriguez-Roisin R, Agusti-Vidal A. Nosocomial pneumonia. A multivariate analysis of risk and prognosis. Chest. 1988;93(2):318-24. doi: 10.1378/chest.93.2.318. [PubMed: 3338299].
  • 6. Chawla R. Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in Asian countries. Am J Infect Control. 2008;36(4 Suppl):S93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2007.05.011. [PubMed: 18468551].
  • 7. Luna CM, Vujacich P, Niederman MS, Vay C, Gherardi C, Matera J, et al. Impact of BAL data on the therapy and outcome of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 1997;111(3):676-85. doi: 10.1378/chest.111.3.676. [PubMed: 9118708].
  • 8. El-Rabbany M, Zaghlol N, Bhandari M, Azarpazhooh A. Prophylactic oral health procedures to prevent hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2015;52(1):452-64. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.07.010. [PubMed: 25443306].
  • 9. Werarak P, Kiratisin P, Thamlikitkul V. Hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults at Siriraj Hospital: etiology, clinical outcomes, and impact of antimicrobial resistance. J Med Assoc Thai. 2010;93 Suppl 1:S126-38. [PubMed: 20364567].
  • 10. Kanafani ZA, Kara L, Hayek S, Kanj SS. Ventilator-associated pneumonia at a tertiary-care center in a developing country: incidence, microbiology, and susceptibility patterns of isolated microorganisms. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2003;24(11):864-9. doi: 10.1086/502151. [PubMed: 14649777].
  • 11. Koulenti D, Lisboa T, Brun-Buisson C, Krueger W, Macor A, Sole-Violan J, et al. Spectrum of practice in the diagnosis of nosocomial pneumonia in patients requiring mechanical ventilation in European intensive care units. Crit Care Med. 2009;37(8):2360-8. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181a037ac. [PubMed: 19531951].
  • 12. Ghazvini K, Ghanaat J, Malek Jafarian M, Yazdan Panah M, Lrani N. [Incidence of nosocomial Pneumonia and bacterial agents causing this infection in intensive care unit in Ghaem educational hospital in Mashhad]. J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2005;13(4):55-61. Persian.
  • 13. Koff MD, Corwin HL, Beach ML, Surgenor SD, Loftus RW. Reduction in ventilator associated pneumonia in a mixed intensive care unit after initiation of a novel hand hygiene program. J Crit Care. 2011;26(5):489-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2010.12.013. [PubMed: 21439767].
  • 14. Salehifar E, Abed S, Mirzaei E, Kalhor S, Eslami G, Ala S, et al. [Evaluation of profile of Microorganisms involved in hospital-acquired infections and their antimicrobial resistance pattern in intensive care units of Emam Khomeini hospital, Sari, 2011-2012]. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2013;22(1):151-62.
  • 15. Japoni A, Vazin A, Davarpanah MA, Afkhami Ardakani M, Alborzi A, Japoni S, et al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in Iranian intensive care units. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(4):286-93. doi: 10.3855/jidc.1212. [PubMed: 21537070].
  • 16. Liu YN, Cao B, Wang H, Chen LA, She DY, Zhao TM, et al. [Adult hospital acquired pneumonia: a multicenter study on microbiology and clinical characteristics of patients from 9 Chinese cities]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2012;35(10):739-46. [PubMed: 23289990].
  • 17. Nadi E, Nekouii B, Mobin A, Nekouii A, Moghim Beigi A. [Frequency of nosocomial pneumonia in ICUs of hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences]. J Isfahan Med Sch. 2011;29(153). Persian.
  • 18. Parsa Yekta Z, Rezai Pour. A , Faghihzadeh S, Rassouli M. [Survey incidence of nosocomial pneumonia resultingfrom aspiration amony the hospitalized patients in the ntensive care unit of Tehran University of medical sciences in 1999]. J Hayat. 2001;7(1):4-13.
  • 19. Mohammadshahi J, Habibzadeh S, Pourhallaji M. Comparative frequency evaluation of bacterial organisms isolated from clinical samples of ICU admitted patients and related factors in Ardabil-Iran. Int J Adv Biol Biomed Res. 2014;2(9):2562-5.
  • 20. Nassaji M, Mosavi S, Ghorbani R. [Incidences of nosocomial pneumonia in patients above 15 years in intensive care units of university hospital in Semnan]. Koomesh. 2004;5(1):89-94. Persian.
  • 21. Weber DJ, Rutala WA, Sickbert-Bennett EE, Samsa GP, Brown V, Niederman MS. Microbiology of ventilator-associated pneumonia compared with that of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(7):825-31. doi: 10.1086/518460. [PubMed: 17564985].
  • 22. Esperatti M, Ferrer M, Theessen A, Liapikou A, Valencia M, Saucedo LM, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia in the intensive care unit acquired by mechanically ventilated versus nonventilated patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182(12):1533-9. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201001-0094OC. [PubMed: 20693381].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments